Regarding measurement devices, I'm not surprised that ESD would blow up the input to them, a fair number of our large high bandwidth scopes have ESD warnings plastered on the front. As I understand, high end measurement equipment has other requirements that can limit the ESD protection used (a high bandwidth scope, for example, might not be able to use TVS diodes due to their parasitic capacitance).
In general though, you're right that a suffcienctly large ESD event will cause damage to just about anything. On the other hand, your typical consumer doesn't want to wear a wrist strap when they use their laptop, so manufacturers go through ESD testing to make sure typical events won't damage their products. In my line of work we don't do any system level design or testing, but I believe the standard for a system level ESD test is IEC 61000-4-2. It's probably a safe assumption that testing like that is only done on consumer products, but I really can't say for sure.
The carpet is an interesting note. I've never actually seen ESD carpet in a home (and I couldn't actually find any household carpet with static-dissipative properties online, most were 100% polyester), I've only really ever seen static dissipative hard flooring, we use it in our test floor at work. It might be a regional thing.
I have a suspicision that the Einsy and indeed most of the printer is fine with the ESD that caused restarts and my issue was the power panic board was especially sensitive and triggering a mains fault. At the end of the day, grounding the frame seemed to get rid of my issue, so I'll probably leave it at that. I'd recommend it as a precaution in general, as we said it won't be perfect, but at least it seems to help some.